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YALI Network – Building a Public Health Communication Campaign

[TEXT: Young African Leaders Initiative: Online Training Series] Hello, my name is Khadidiatou Ndiaye, Assistant Professor
of Global Health at The George Washington University. [TEXT: Khadidiatou Ndiaye, Assistant Professor
of Global Health and Director of the Global
Health Communication Program at the Milken Institute School of Public Health at
The George Washington University] This is “Building a Public Health Communication Campaign.”
[TEXT: Effective Communication for Healthy Outcomes: Building
a Public Health Communications Campaign] Imagine that Malaria is a leading cause of illness and
death in your town but people are not using bed nets even
though they are available. You decide that you want to do something about it. A
well-designed public health communication campaign can help you. [TEXT: Learning Objectives: Effective Communication
for Healthy Outcomes] In this lesson, we will go
through step-by-step instructions [TEXT: How to design a public health communications campaign]
for designing a public health communication campaign [TEXT: How to do formative research] from
completing the formative research, [TEXT: How to implement and evaluate
the campaign] implementing the campaign and evaluating it. [TEXT: What is a Public Health Communication Campaign]
As defined by the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, health communication involves [TEXT: Health Communication: study and use of
communication strategies to inform and influence
individual and community decisions that enhance health.] the study and use of communication strategies to inform and
influence individual and community decisions that enhance health. [TEXT: Strategic effort] A communication campaign is a strategic
effort that involves understanding and respecting local cultures [TEXT: Respecting local cultures] as well as
multichannel integration, [TEXT: Multichannel integration] participation of
relevant stakeholders, [TEXT: Relevant stakeholders] and increased
attention to evaluation. [TEXT: Evaluation] We just don’t just throw messages out
there and hope they will resonate with the audience. Communication campaigns are designed using a range of
theoretical frameworks to increase their effectiveness. And the best ones work at multiple levels to
reinforce messages. They may focus on the [TEXT: Individual level … Family level … Community level …
Society level] individual, family, community or society. It is important to note that even if the campaign you are
designing is focused on the individual, you should consider
community and societal influences. If we go back to the example about Malaria, consider if there
are policies that make it difficult for a family or individual
to access the bed nets. [TEXT: Stages of a Health Communication Campaign]
For the sake of clarity, we will divide the
campaign into 3 major stages: [TEXT: 3 Major Stages: Formative research … Implementation …
Evaluation] formative research, implementation, and evaluation. [TEXT: Formative Research] Formative research allows for a more
focused campaign, helps avoid mistakes that could make your campaign ineffective, and enhances the quality of your
messages. Before we think about designing messages, there are several steps to take to ensure that we
have a great understanding of the [TEXT: Problem … Audience … Context] problem, the audience,
and the context. To complete your formative research you
will use several data collection techniques including [TEXT: Individual interviews … Focus groups … Participant
observation … Surveys] individual interviews, focus
groups, participant observation, surveys, [TEXT: Document reviews … Current
and past campaigns] and document reviews. You will also consult
current and past campaigns on the same topic. [TEXT: Step One: Understanding the Problem and
Context: Situation Analysis] The first step is to
understand the scope of the problem. This is where you ask the question: What is really going
on?  Some of the things to consider at this stage
include the health situation – its size, who is affected. Also, consider media access and
past, current, and planned efforts to address the issue. [TEXT: Step Two: Understanding the Audience] A campaign cannot be designed for all audiences.
Understand that different audiences possess different characteristics that make them more or less likely to pay
attention to, process, and be influenced by different messages. [TEXT: Conduct audience analysis, if possible.]
Audience analysis allows you to understand and better
predict behavior and thus, develop messages that appeal to your audience. First,
look at relevant demographics information for the topic.
Consider things like [TEXT: Age … Gender … Marital status … Income …
Education] the age, gender, marital status, income,
and education to segment the audience. Audiences can also be divided based on their
readiness to change. By understanding where the individuals are in their change process, we are able
to move them to the next step. For example, campaign messages would be different for someone who never used
bed nets than someone who has used them once but stopped. Now it’s time to define your campaign goals
and objectives. This is where you have to be careful to avoid one of the errors that novice campaign
designers often make. [TEXT: Knowledge does not always lead to
change in behavior.] They tend to believe that
it’s always a knowledge issue and we just need to inform people and they will change their
behaviors. The reality is that sometimes the knowledge is there but it is not enough to induce behavior change.
For example, if you see that many families in your community have bed nets, but are not using them, your
campaign goals and objectives would be different than if you were working with families who don’t know
about bed nets. [TEXT: Step Four: Designing Messages] [TEXT: From USAID Health Communication Capacity
Collaborative] Successful, well-designed messages are [TEXT: Simple … Memorable … Understandable … Appropriate
… Meaningful] simple, memorable, easily understood, culturally appropriate and meaningful to the
audience. When we are talking about messages, we
are not talking about a poster or brochure, we are talking about the key content, the
key take home messages based on the needs
you have identified in the previous steps. [TEXT: Seven C’s] Your message should be
written with the 7Cs in mind. [TEXT: Command attention … Clarify message
… Communicate benefit … Consistent … Create
trust] Command attention, clarify the message, communicate a benefit, be consistent, create trust, [TEXT: Cater … Call to action] cater to the
heart and mind, and include a call to action. You should also be careful to design a respectful and culturally
appropriate message. Finally, messages should be pretested with
members of the priority audiences. [TEXT: Step Five: Selecting Channels and Tools] When
determining how to best reach the audience, you should consider both traditional channels like radio,
TV, and print, as well as new technologies such as SMS
messages or online applications. For example, in Ghana the United Against Malaria
campaign used SMS to share information about net use. Another example was a campaign called “Malaria the
silent killer.” Research had shown that people
were fairly apathetic and fatalistic about Malaria and were not aware that pregnant
women and young children were most at risk. The TV spots, radio and print messages thus depicted the
worst case scenario, warning people that malaria could kill their unborn child or their young children,
and the way to prevent this was to sleep under an insecticide-treated mosquito net. Culturally appropriate
channels such as town criers, clinic education sessions for new mothers, community-led arts
programs, peer education in market places, and rural community festivals are other examples of
channels and tools that should not be overlooked. [TEXT: Timing of messages will depend on the
activities of your audience.] It is important
to consider the timing of the message delivery and what activities audience members are
engaged in at that time. [TEXT: Literacy levels will impact your mode of delivery.]
Determine how often they need to see the message. Literacy
levels should not be overlooked. A brochure would be useless if your audience
members cannot read. Since different channels have
different challenges and benefits, a mix of multiple channels is often employed. Finally, you should
seek help from creative professionals in developing things like
graphics, layouts and storylines. [TEXT: Implementing the Public Health
Campaign] Once you have completed the first 5
steps, you are ready to deliver the messages. [TEXT: Step Six: Developing the Implementation Plan] Your implementation plan should detail the entire
message delivery and monitoring process. [TEXT: Implementation Checklist … Identify potential
partners] In this step identify your potential partners in
implementing the program and the roles they’ll play. [TEXT: Community organizations, policymakers, recognizable
figures, etc.] The partners could be policy makers or
community organizations. For example, the United Against Malaria campaign
brought together football players, community
organizations, and policy makers. [TEXT: Create a timeline … Assign responsibilities] Create
a realistic timeline for the campaign and determine who is
responsible for each milestone. [TEXT: Develop the budget … Create a message monitoring
plan] Develop the budget for the campaign. Create a monitoring plan to see if the campaign messages
are delivered as intended. For example, if power outages prevented you from having the bed nets demonstration
you wanted to have, it should be noted so you can adjust and reschedule the activity. [TEXT: Evaluation of the Campaign] Evaluation
will help you determine whether your campaign
was effective, whether it achieved its goals, and the efficiency with which it achieved them. As we discussed
earlier, you will monitor your campaign activities in real time. Impact evaluation is completed at the end of
the campaign and it focuses on overall results. [TEXT: Step Seven: Developing an Evaluation Plan] Evaluation will allow you to measure the effects, both
anticipated and unanticipated, short and long term. [TEXT: How do you expect change to occur?] Your
evaluation should address questions such as: How
do you expect change to occur? [TEXT: Which measures will capture the scope of the change?]
Which measures will capture the scope of the change? [TEXT: What needs to be measured to demonstrate that you
are meeting your objectives?] What needs to be measured
to demonstrate that you are meeting your objectives? Be sure that you are
measuring what you need to measure. Collect baseline data before you begin the campaign. At the end, you should write an
evaluation report that is accessible to your community and partners. Building a public health communication campaign to address a health
threat or concern facing your community is well worth the effort. Done properly and thoughtfully, with support
from governmental, non-governmental, or trained, informed collaborators, a campaign can save lives. [TEXT: Test your knowledge … … YALI
Network] After you have completed all the lessons in
this course at, you can test your knowledge and earn a
YALI Network Certificate. [TEXT: Produced by the U.S. Department of State]

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