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How To Learn Sign Language

The Malay Language (Bahasa Melayu)

Follow Langfocus on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Hello, everyone. Welcome to the Langfocus channel
and my name is Paul. Today’s topic is the Malay language,
or “Bahasa Melayu” as it’s called in Malay. People outside of Southeast Asia
may not be very familiar with Malay, but if we include all speakers of all varieties of Malay, it is
one of the top ten most widely spoken languages in the world And when I say widely,
I mean by a large number of people. It has around 77 million native speakers
and around 173 million second language speakers for a total of about 250 million speakers. Of course, different sources give different numbers,
but something like that. It’s spoken in Malaysia where it has around 18.5 million
native speakers out of a population of around 32 million people Malaysia is an ethnically and linguistically diverse place
with large communities of people speaking Chinese and Indian languages as well as
numerous indigenous minority languages. Everyone in Malaysia now learns Malay at school. But some speakers of other languages
either aren’t fluent in Malay or they choose not to speak it very much
after they graduate from school. Singapore’s another ethnically diverse
place where Malays are a minority. The Malay language is spoken by around
700,000 people there or 13 % of the population . It is also spoken by around 266 thousand people
or about 64% of the population of Brunei. What TF? It’s not broon-EYE it’s Brunei, idiot! Oh yeah sorry, in English, we say Brunei. – Oh my god, you slaughtered the word Brunei haha.
– Ok, uh… Brunei. So like I was saying it’s spoken by around 266 thousand people
or about 64% of the population of Brunei. It is also spoken by around 1 million people,
in southern Thailand adjacent to Peninsular Malaysia. And Malay is spoken by around
11.23 million people in Indonesia But that’s only part of the story. There were also about
43 million native speakers of Bahasa Indonesia and around a hundred and fifty-five (million)
second language speakers of Bahasa Indonesia. So, what’s Bahasa Indonesia? Well, when speaking of the Malay language,
we need to distinguish between Malay dialects, which vary from place to place
and the standardized forms of the language. The first standardized form of the language is Bahasa
Melayu which is used in Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore and functions as an umbrella language
for all of the malay dialects that are spoken there. The second standardized form of the language
is Bahasa Indonesia and is used in Indonesia and functions as a lingua franca
between speakers of different languages because there are hundreds of languages in Indonesia. I plan to focus specifically on Indonesian
in a different video in the future. This is interesting: in Malaysia,
the official name of Malay is “Bahasa Malaysia”, meaning the “language of Malaysia” instead of
“Bahasa Melayu” which means the “language of the Malays” This name was chosen to show that the language
is a language for all Malaysian citizens
and not only for ethnic Malays. But some people want to change the name
back to Bahasa Melayu. History Malay is the most widely spoken language
in the Austronesian language family. The Austronesian languages can most likely
be traced back to a common ancestor Proto-Austronesian, in what is
now Taiwan around 5200 years ago. Various dialects arose from Proto-Austronesian. One of them being Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
which began splitting up into various languages, around 4,000 years ago as Austronesian people
expanded to the South from Taiwan. The Malayo-Polynesian sub-branch includes
most of the Austronesian languages outside of Taiwan. A Proto-Malayic language,
the ancestor of all Malay dialects, probably originated on the island of Borneo
more than 2,000 years ago, before its speakers migrated West to Sumatra
and the Malay Peninsula Old Malay. The beginning of the Common Era and by that I mean
after the year 1 CE or 1AD – same thing by the way – was a time of great Indian influence in the region
And, during this time, Old Malay emerged. It was highly influenced by sanskrit and
written in Indian scripts like Pallava The oldest known incriptions of old Malay
are the Kebukan Bukit, which were found in Sumatra and dig back to the seventh century CE. The oldest thought Malay manuscript
that still exists today is that Tanjung Tanah. A legal text from the 14th century,
still before Islam was widespread in the area. Classical Malay. Islam soon became dominant in the area
and trade with the Muslim world increased, resulting in a lot of Arabic and Persian vocabulary
entering the language and resulting in the adoption of the Jawi script Jawi is a version of the Arabic script
that was modified to suit the Malay language During the Malacca Sultanate,
which was like a kingdom, and its successor the Johor Sultanate,
Malay became widely used as a lingua franca. During this time, Islamic literature greatly affected
the language, with more Arabic and Persian vocabulary
entering Malay And because Malacca was a busy international port
with people from various countries, Malay also absorbed vocabulary from
different languages like Tamil and Chinese languages. During this Classical Malay Period,
Malay evolved into something relatively similar to the Bahasa Melayu and Bahasa Indonesia of today. There were actually two forms of Malay
that became widespread during this time period. First, there was the formal Classical Malay
which was the state language
and the language of courts and literature. And there was Bazaar Malay or Melayu Pasar a low language spoken by traders
as a lingua franca throughout the archipelago. Bazaar Malay is thought to have been a pidgin language
featuring vocabulary from Malay but influenced by other languages,
such as Chinese languages. And there were also local Malay dialects
that varied from place to place. Pre-modern Malay. In the 19th century, European colonial powers
were dominating the region, with the Dutch in Indonesia
and the British in Malaysia. During this time period, improvements to the printing press
made Malay books and newspapers more widely
available to the common people. So that, literary Malay or Classical Malay was no longer
just the language of the courts and the elite. The literary Malay of the Malacca and the Johor Sultanates
– in other words, Classical Malay – was recognized by the British and by the Dutch
as the standard form of the language and became the language of Education. One notable change during the colonial period
was the adoption of the Rumi writing system, the use of Roman characters to write Malay,
instead of the Jawi Script. And English loanwords began to trickle into Malay,
in the areas under British control. Modern Malay The abundance of Malay literature in the 19th century
sparks new enthusiasm for the language. And Malay linguists began their efforts to
standardize and modernize the language. In 1936, the Malay scholar Za’aba
published a series of books called “Pelita Bahasa” in which he updated the grammar of Classical Malay,
forming the basis of Bahasa Melayu and Bahasa Indonesia In both Malaysia and Indonesia, the standard form
of Malay became an important part of their respective nationalist movements
and their struggles for independence. When Indonesia declared independence in 1945,
Bahasa Indonesia became the national language and, when Malaysia became independent in 1957,
Bahasa Melayu became the national language. Dialects. Bahasa Melayu is the standard form of Malay
used in Malaysia and Singapore and Brunei. And it’s the form of the language taught in schools
but there are numerous spoken dialects of Malay that vary not only from country to country
but also from state to state and from town to town. With differences in pronunciation and vocabulary. The Malay spoken and Sabah and Sarawak tends to
be more similar to that spoken in Brunei and Singapore but different from the dialects in West Malaysia. And some states in West Malaysia are known
for being quite divergent For example, the dialect of Kelantan. Kelantan borders Thailand to the north
where a similar dialect is spoken. The difference is that in Kelantan,
everyone learned standard Malay at school but, in southern Thailand,
everyone learns Thai at school. This makes cross dialect communication
harder for speakers of Malay in Thailand. But, for speakers of other Malay dialect,
standard Malay is a unifying force and speaking a little more formally
can help people bridge communication gaps. Standard Malay is also the form of Malay
learned by non-Malays at school. So Standard Malay is sometimes
the language of inter-ethnic communication. Though some people choose to speak English instead. So, what is Malay like? Like most Austronesian languages,
Malay is not a tonal language. It has simple phonology and every written character
represents only one sound in most cases. It has a simple SVO sentence structure. For example: meaning “I eat vegetables” I don’t eat meat Now, let’s add a modal verb. I don’t want to eat meat I don’t want to eat meat or drink milk. Malay grammar is simple
First of all, there’s no grammatical gender. There are also no noun cases. There is also no plural form in Malay. If you want to make a plural explicit,
you re-duplicate the word or repeat the word. “Orang” means a person “orang-orang” means “people”. And, speaking of orang : fun fact ! “orang” means “a person” in Malay.
“hutan” means “forest” in Malay. “orang hutan” means “forest person”,
also known as orangutan, cool! That’s the etymology of the word “orangutan”, but also
in Malay the animal’s name is “orang utan” with no “h” If you want to modify a noun,
you add the modifying word after the noun. The word for book: buku Now, let’s add a demonstrative pronoun.
“Buku itu”=”that book” or with a possessive pronoun
“buku saya”=”my book”
or “buku buku saya”=”my books” or with an adjective
“buku mahal”=”an expensive book” In Malay, there is no copula verb (to be )
at least in regular speech. And there is no definite or indefinite article.
So “buku mahal” could also mean “the book is expensive” But to be more clear, you might say “Buku itu mahal” Prepositions in Malay are very straightforward and intuitive
…=”I come from Canada”=”I want to go to the night market” “There is a discount for students”.
In this sentence, “Ada” means “there is”. One of the things that makes learning Malay fun
is that there are no verb conjugations The form of the verb stays exactly the same regardless
of whether it’s in present tense, past tense or future tense. So we have the verb meaning to eat. In present tense,
“makan”. In past tense, “makan”. In future tense, “makan”. The tense is determined by specifying a time period like: “He will eat later”
or by using an adverb before the verb: he will eat “he already ate” ; or “he is currently eating” or “he’s eating now”. And there are some other adverbs like this. But, of course, it’s not quite that simple
because we have the verb “makan”, “to eat” but we also have the verb “dimakan”=”to be eaten”
and “termakan”=”to be eaten accidentally” And we have the verb “memakan”=”to consume”. Then, we have “memakankan”
=”to feed something to someone” These are examples of one of Malay’s
most challenging features for learners: its system of building words from roots and affixes. Up above, we created some new verbs
but we can also create other types of words. food someone who eats means a meat eater. Malay makes extensive use of this kind of affixation. Let’s look at one more example using the root word
“ajar” which means “to teach”. teachings to learn to teach “to be taught” (intransitive)
as in “I’m being taught” transitive as in “the lesson is being taught” to study to be studied student teacher learning to be educated All of these affixes might seem overwhelming
at first but they’re fairly systematic. And once you get used to the function
of all of the different affixes, then it helps you to understand words
that you’ve never heard before and it helps you to guess how to say words
that you don’t know yet. That sounds useful! Standard Malay is a very user-friendly language for learners,
especially if you’re used to learning more complex languages. The biggest challenge that you likely face
is the difference between the formal language and the casual language and the dialectal variation
that you’ll encounter. Especially different pronunciation. But by learning the standard polite form of Malay,
you form a good basis for communication and you can learn the more colloquial style
of communication as you go. Stay tuned for a future episode
in which I cover “Bahasa Indonesia”
and I’ll focus in on that form of Malay specifically. Be sure to subscribe to LangFocus and follow
LangFocus on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. And I’d like to say thank you
to all of my patreon supporters, especially the ones on the screen right now
for their generous support every month. Thank you for watching
and have a nice day! By the way, “Bahasa” means “language”.

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