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Introduction to Computer Programming | What is is? Programming Language Types | Beginners Video


Hi this is Anil from learning lad and in
this video we are going to talk about the computer, computer programming and the types
of programming languages. A computer is a general purpose machines which
can perform many computational task now the modern day computers that we have they can
perform billions or trillions of calculations within a fraction of second. now the thing
these computer’s they can’t really do anything on their own. so for a computer to do something
one has to give the instructions to it and these instructions will contain step by step
information to perform a specific task and these instructions are called as program.
now the person who is going to write these instructions or the program is called as the
programmer and here the programmer will write instructions or the program and the computer
will execute that or computer will work on that instructions now the computers that we have they contain
a lot of programs in them. There are some programs which will manage the computer hardware
resources and they are called as the system programs and there are some programs which
will provide specific functionality to a user for example the Notepad web browser music
player video player and all these types of programs are called as the application programs. now we know that we need to give instructions
to the computer so that the computer can work on it now the thing is how we can give the
instruction to the computer or in which language we can give the instructions to the computer.
Now since this computer is a machine how we can communicate with this machine. now the language in which these instructions
are written or the language in which this program is written is called as the programming
language. now there are several types of programming languages and we are going to see the details
about them. now you guys may probably heard that the computers
can only understand the binary language. Now this binary language has only two values.
0 and 1 so in this binary language whatever you want to say has to be in the form of this
0 and 1. now here these computer’s are built in such a way that they can understand or
they can recognise the pattern of the zeros and ones and then they can work on it accordingly. Now why we have built the computers to understand
this binary language? that is because this binary language which
has only two values is easy to create in the hardware level for example if we have a wire
and if the current is flowing through this wire then we can say it is 1 if the current
is not flowing then we can say it is zero. so in general we can say that one stands for
something which exists and zero stands for something which doesn’t exist so since this
binary language is easy to create in the hardware level so the computer is built in the hardware
level to recognise this pattern of 0 and 1 and while building the computer for a specific
pattern of 0 and 1 a specific setup operations are defined. so when the computer will see a specific pattern
of 0 and 1 it knows what it has to do. so now the computers can understand this binary
language and this binary language with the computers understand are also called as the
machine language. now let’s see the types of programming languages
available. now in this modern day we have a lot of programming languages available.
so let’s take a look at the types of programming languages.
so the first type of programming language or the language in which we can communicate
with the computer is the language which the computer understands. now all of you know
that this computer’s can understand this binary language or the machine language which is
the combination of zeros and ones. so the first type of programming languages
is the machine level language And in this machine level language we have the instructions
in the form of 0 and 1. so whatever you want to say has to be in the
form of zero and one and since the computers are built in such a way that they can recognise
this zeros and ones and perform some specific operation on that the combination of zeros
and ones you know we can communicate with his computer in this language. now the problem with this machine level language
is in order to program in this machine level language one has to know everything about
the computer. so here the programmer is directly dealing with the hardware level so he is directly
working on the memory and the data. so the programeer needs to know everything
about the computer, computer processor the computer architecture everything about that
he has to know and that’s why this machine level language is a bit difficult to learn
and also think about this let’s say you want to write a program in the machine level language
or you want to give instructions to the computer in the machine level language and your program
consists of thousand lines. all your instruction will contain this 0 and 1 and this combination
of the zeros and ones. first of all it is difficult to write the program and also if
you make some mistakes in your program then it is difficult to spot and because of all
these, a normal guy can’t really learn the programming easily. so to solve these kind of problems another
type of programming languages were invented and they are called as the Assembly level
language. in this assembly level language instead of
that zeros and ones combination mnemonic the symbolic codes were introduced for example
if the programmer has to write an instruction let’s say he wants to add the numbers 5 and
6. then in the machine level language it has
to be in the form of this zeros and ones. so let’s say this is gonna be the instruction
to add the numbers 5 and 6. so in the machine level language it will look
like this but in the Assembly level language mnemonic codes for used and the programmer
could write ADD 5 6. So a lot of mnemonic or the symbolic codes
where used and the programmer could write the program in this way.
so it was a lot more human readable format the programmer can understand the code just
by looking at it and it was a lot easier to code than the machine level language. so now the thing is the source code of the
program written in this assembly level language by using this mnemonic or the symbol Codes
cannot be directly executed in this computer that is because this computer can only understand
the machine language. so what we have to do is we have to convert
the code which is written in the Assembly level language to machine level language so
that the computer can understand it and execute it.
so the program written in the Assembly level language needs to be converted to the machine
level language and to convert that a program was used and that program is called as the
assembler. so this assembler will convert the code written
in the Assembly level language to machine level language.
now this assembly level language was lot more easy to learn and someone can learn the programming
a lot more easily than the machine level language but this assembly level language also had
the same difficulties. although it was a lot easy to write the programs
than the machine level language in assembly level language if the program size increases
then again it is difficult to spot the errors and also the code written in the Assembly
level language was also Computer Architecture dependent. so the code return for one type of computer
cannot be executed in another type of computer which has different architecture so again
to solve these kind of problems a new types of languages by invented so that a lot more
people can come and write the programs and that type of programming languages are called
as the Higher level languages. the high level languages are designed in such
a way that they are very easy for a beginner to learn and they were very close to the human
readable language for example in this higher level language one could write the instruction
to add 5 and 6 like this. so this 5 + 6 is a lot more similar to the
human language so just by looking at the code one can understand what we’re trying to do
and since this higher level languages where a lot more easy to learn many people started
learning computer programming and started creating lot more programs. now again the thing is the program written
in the higher level language cannot be directly executed in the computer that is because the
computer can only understand the machine language which can contain 0 and 1 but the higher level
language is very close to the human languages. so we have to convert the program which is
written in the high level language to machine language which the computers can understand
and execute. so for this high level languages there are two ways in which we can convert
the source code from high level language to machine level language and execute it and
the two methods which were used to convert the high level language program to machine
level language one was the compilation method where a program called compiler was used. this is the compilation method another method
is called as the interpretation and for this interpretation method another type of program
called as interpreter was used and we will see the details of this compilation and interpretation
method a bit later but here just remember that although these are two different methods
what they do is they convert the program which is written in the high level language to machine
level language which the computers can understand and execute. now here this machine level language and the
Assembly level language they are called as the lower level languages.
because while writing the programs in this machine and assembly level language the programmers
could easily access the computer memory and directly work with the data. but with the
most of this high level languages the programmers can’t directly access the memory and the work
with data. but there are some languages in the high level
language type which allow the programmer to work with the Computer memory and the data
and they are called as the middle level languages and this middle level languages they provide
all the features of the higher level languages and also they allow the programmer to work
with the Computer memory and data directly and since this languages provide the feature
of the lower level language and also the high level language they are called as the middle
level languages and we have the languages like C and C plus plus are these are all the
middle level languages because allow the programmer to work with the Computer memory and data
and also they provide all the features of this high level language and in the high level
languages we have Java C Sharp python etc. this machine level language which is very
close to the machine or you know this language the computer directly understands, it executes
much faster than all these languages. so the execution speed of this machine language
is very high and after this machine level language we have the Assembly languages and
their execution speed is better than the high level languages but a bit slower than the
machine level language and then we have the high level languages. so now as I said before in this high level
languages we can convert the code from higher level language to machine code in two different
ways one is the compilation method another one is interpretation method. let’s see this compilation and interpretation
method in detail. so first see the compilation.
so in the compilation method a program called compiler is used and this compiler Will take
the high level language program and it will convert that to the machine language and this
process is called as the compilation method and here what happens is this compiler will
read the high level language program let’s say this is high level language program it
will read this program and it will convert that to the machine language. it will convert
this entire program into machine language and then this machine language code will be
executed. so the thing is compiler will convert entire
program which is written in the high level language to machine level language and then
that machine level language code will be executed. now let’s take a look at this interpretation
method so here also we will be converting the program written in the high level language
to the machine level language and then executing that. and for that purpose we will be using
a program called as the interpreter and this process is called as the interpretation. so the process of converting the high level
language program to machine language by using the program interpreter is called as the interpretation
method now here what happens is lets say this is the source code or the programs written
in the high level language and this interpreter what it does is first it will read the first
line of this source code or the program which is in the high level language and then it
will convert that to the machine code and then it will execute it immediately and after
that it will go to the next line of the high level language program it will read that it
will convert that code and then it will execute it immediately and then it will go to the
third line and then again it will convert that code and then it will execute it. so in the compilation process the entire program
which was written in the high level language was read first then it was converted to machine
level language and then that entire program was executed at once but with the interpretation
method the interpreter will read the program which is in the high level language line by
line it and it will convert and execute each line immediately at a time. and this is how
the compiler and interpreter work. now there are many languages in the high level
language type and in that languages some follow the compilation method and some follow the
interpretation method. the languages which follow the compilation
method are called as the compiled languages and for example we have C C + + etc these
are all the compiled languages where the compilation method is used to convert the program iwhich
is written in these languages to the machine language and the higher level languages which
follow the interpretation method are called as the interpreted languages for example we
have Python and this Python is an interpreted language. All right. this is it guys this is about the
computers computer programming types of programming languages compilation and the interpretation
method and I really hope that you have learn something from this video and if you like
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