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How To Learn Sign Language

Decoding Deceptive Body Language

[MUSIC] When I was in fifth grade, I won an eating contest by eating
five chicken-fried steaks.>>[LAUGH]
>>I used to volunteer at the Palo Alto VA Hospital to
help them perform autopsies. When I lived in Australia I used to
work night shifts as a bartender, as a professional mover as well.>>I dropped bakery school
to come to Stanford.>>One of us is lying, and we hope by the end of our presentation
you have a better idea of who that was. Today we are going to make you
into the best Two Truths and a Lie players that GSB has ever seen. Because today, we’re here to talk to you
about the body language of deception. We’re going to be drawing heavily
on research by body language expert Carol Goman. And with this knowledge,
you should be able to spot liars in games, in interviews, in negotiations,
and even presentations. We communicate a lot with our bodies. We learned earlier in the quarter that
over half of the total impact of a message is communicated non-verbally. The same is true with lying. So nonverbals can be important and
reliable tells. In our presentation today we’re
going to start from the top and work down,
detailing common cues of deception. We’re going to start with the face,
move to the hands, and end with the feet.>>Have you ever thought of wearing
sunglasses for a business meeting? For a tough negotiation? For a date? Probably not.>>[LAUGH]
>>That will sound weird. However, sorry. However, some people do it. Poker players do it. Why do they do it? Because they didn’t go to Stanford? No. They do it because they know that your
eyes talk more than you want them to do. One thing, the pupils. The pupils are directly
wired to your brain. And because that directly
wired to your brain, there’s not much you can do about it. When you’re excited,
they’re going to dilate. If you dissimilate, not interested,
they’re going to retract. Pokers player don’t want you to see
their hands through their eyes. There’s other ways by which you
can deceive through your eyes. When you dissimilate typically, your
eyes gonna start blinking frenetically. Much faster than they usually do. Or you’re gonna avoid
eye contact altogether. Police know these cues very well. Luckily for you, in Silicon Valley, and
the US generally, when you go to work, people don’t wear sunglasses,
even though in California you never know. Another way where you can read
people’s mind, through the face. Because you’re a good mammal, you know
the expressions of the six major emotion. Smiling associated with happiness,
sadness, anger, disgust, but
the problem is everybody knows that. They’re universal, so
people are gonna try to fake it. Let me give you two advice,
two hint how to detect it. The first one is the emotion
shows first on the face. The first thing that’s gonna come. If your emotion come at the same time as
you speak, then it is a dissimulation. It’s fake. So second one is an emotion
actually lasts less than a second. So any manifestation,
demonstration of this emotion, if it lasts more than one second,
you’re probably faking it as well. One last thing, it’s on your tongue. In a recent poll by a great newspaper,
4% of American say that they believe that lesser people were among the US and were
trying to take over the US government. I cannot comment on the veracity of that,
but I can give you two things. First, being called lizard is not
a compliment on your honesty. Second is your tongue is gonna start
under pressure to flick phonetically. And that short gif
John Kerry in a 90 minutes, 90 second testimony flicks his
tongue like a snake eight times.>>[LAUGH]
>>I’ll let you make up your mind about what he says, but I’ll tell you one thing,
keep your tongue in.>>[LAUGH]
>>Looking at the eyes and the face, is that an actor? You also wanna pay attention
to the hands and the gestures. In particular,
you wanna pay attention to three things. The first is where the hands are going. When we lie, we tend to do movements with
our hands that we wouldn’t otherwise. Some of these include,
covering your mouth, as if the brain was telling the body, you’re lying, you might
get caught, and there’s consequences. So cover yourself. The second is we scratch our nose. And we do that because we release
more adrenaline when we’re nervous, when we’re lying and
therefore our skin becomes itchy. We also tend to rub our neck or our ear in a reassuring reflex that we
have had since we were little kids. The second part is timing. Just as Rodolphe mentioned with
the facial expressions, with gestures, timing is also of the essence. Every time we speak and we’re gesturing at
the same time, we always gesture first and then say the words. But when we lie, we usually say
the words first and then do the gesture. In this video, hopefully you’ll
be able to see the differences. And see how whenever [CROSSTALK].>>But I wanna say one thing
to the American people. I want you to listen to me. I’m gonna say this again. I did not have sexual
relations with that woman. Miss Lew-
>>Do you believe him? Even if you didn’t know,
if you didn’t know that he was lying, you would be able to tell
that something’s off. There’s a difference between I did not and
I did not. Hopefully by now you’ll be able to tell
that that difference usually implies that someone is not being completely honest. The third thing to look for
is the positioning of the palms. Will you believe me more if I’m
talking to you like this, or if I’m talking to you like this? Our palms are a part of our body that we
use to connect with other people a lot. That’s why we handshake, that’s why
we wave whenever we greet people. Therefore, whenever someone is lying,
it’s very hard to do so with their palms exposed. So, what we do is we either put them
in our pockets, or just put them, facing down, or we put them behind
an object that may be in between us and the people that we’re lying to,
such as a desk. Gesturing is the most primitive way
of communication that humans have. And for that reason, we tend to
do the movements instantaneously. Even when we can rehearse
the words that we say when we lie, the gestures have a mind of their own. So they’re more involuntary. By now, hopefully you’ll be able to
see that if you pay attention to where the hands go, the timing of the movement
and also, where the palms are facing. We’d say a lot without saying nothing.>>Well,
Daniel just showed us the importance of looking at the hand
gestures to detect lies. And Rodolphe had mentioned
the facial expression. Joe Navarro who’s been an FBI
behavioral analyst for the past 20 years and
author of What Everybody Is Saying, claims that the most honest part
of our body is actually our feet. And this is because when we try to
control our body we focus on our facial expressions and our hands but
we often don’t rehearse our feet. So there’s really four main things that
you should look out for with the feet. The first is how you stand. So I’m standing here with my weight
equally distributed between both my legs. This shows that I’m much more
comfortable about what I’m saying. And I’m taking a firm stand on the
subject, but if I were to cross my legs, this is a much more closed and
defensive position. I’m much more uncomfortable
about what I’m saying and I’m likely to be more nervous about it. And I were to shift my
weight from side to side. Or rock back and forth. This is a sign that I’m
trying to calm myself. And again, I’m likely nervous
about what I’m saying to you. The second thing to look out for,
is how often the feet are moving. So, if I’m fidgeting my feet,
if I’m tapping them, if I’m winding them around things. It’s likely another sign that I’m
uncomfortable with what I’m saying to you. The third thing to look out for is the
direction of where my feet are pointing. This is an indication of
my interest level and my liking towards the person
that I’m talking to. So if we were to have a conversation and
my feet were pointing toward the door but my torso is still pointed towards you,
it likely means that I wanna exit this conversation because I’m not
interested in talking to you. [LAUGH] And the fourth and
final thing to look out for is this concept of ankle locking and
this is where one ankle crosses the other. And this is a sign that somebody is
likely withholding information from you. For example, in therapy sessions, a lot of patients will lock their ankles
as they’re withholding their emotions. And in negotiations, if the person
across from the table from you is locking their ankles, it likely means that
they’re withholding valuable concessions. So for all these reasons,
remember that one of the most honest, non-verbal communicators
are actually your feet. So take a glance down at somebody’s
feet when you’re talking to them. And look out for the four signs of lying. Unbalanced stance, lot of feet movement, the feet pointing
away from you, and ankle locking.>>So at this point we’ve really picked
apart the nonverbals of deception. We’ve talked to you about the face,
we’ve talked to you about the hands, and we’ve talked to you about the feet. Just to bring it back together, it’s important to remember to
view behaviors in clusters. So look for at least three signs
of lying before calling foul. And if you can, think about
the context of what’s normal for the individual that you’re observing. Now, we don’t condone lying per se, but we
would encourage you to use this knowledge, not only for others, but for yourself. So the next time you’re at
the World Series of Poker, don’t forget your sunglasses to
cover up those dilated pupils. Or if that’s not in the cards, consider your next tough negotiation,
or interview situation. We’d love now to turn to questions, would love to hear anything
that you would like to ask us, but first we want to answer what might be
the most burning question in the room. Who was lying?>>[LAUGH] [MUSIC]

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