Carpatho Rusyn Language | Will Polish and Czech understand?
December 12, 2019
Carpatho Rusyn language is a language spoken by the Rusyns an East Slavic people whose population is scattered over many different countries in the region. Their language has many dialects and their status varies from country to country. Pannonian Rusyn is recognized as an official language in Vojvodina, Serbia. In Poland, Rusyn is known as the Lemko language and has an ethnic minority language status. Rusyn is also spoken in Eastern Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Transcarpathian region of Ukraine In this episode, we have Mikhalj from Uzhhorod, Ukraine, And he speaks Боржавськый dialect of Rusyn Together with Vit from the Czech Republic, we’re going to determine if our 3 languages are mutually intelligible. I’m Norbert from Poland and I’ll be speaking Polish in this Slavic languages comparison video. Myhal’: Greetings! I’m glad to see you guys today. Vít: Also! Norbert: Hi! Welcome! M: Well, I have 4 words prepared out here, and you guys are about to guess what they are. V: I understand. N: Ok. M: So, are you ready? V&N: Yes. M: So, the first word: it’s a thing that we use in the kitchen quite often. N: It’s a household object that we find in the kitchen. Right? N: That’s how I understand it. M: Yes. Vít, how is it going to be in Czech? V: Well, a household item that is used in the kitchen. M: Yes, that’s correct, that’s right. What’s interesting about this thing is that this object has several quite different names out here. V: It has many different names in our countries. N: It has many different names in our countries. M: Yes, but not in YOUR countries, but in OUR countries. N: In YOURS. Right? Did I say OURS? M: All good, all good. All right. That would be very difficult to cook almost any dish without this object in our cuisine. V: Without that object, it is difficult to cook any food. M: Bingo! N: I understood that without this item it’s impossible to make a good cake. Right? A sweet cake? M: No. It has nothing to do with baking. I’m talking about the cuisine in general. N: How is it going to be in Czech? V: Any food. N: Any food. Ok. I get it. M: Yes, yes. So, how do we cook? We can boil food or fry food. So this object is to fry food. V: Yeah, so we can cook or fry if we have oil, and we need it for frying. V: …so it sputters like chips, chips are fried, and we need it for the other one, frying N: You? So you use this item in Czechia? Do you know what item it is, Vít? V: Um, maybe, maybe. N: Cause I’m not sure yet. Can you repeat, Myhal’, what this item is used for? M: So, Vit got the point, this thing is used for frying food, or we can also say ‘smazhyty’. N: For frying. M: We kinda use both words. V: Yes. N: Ok. So I know already. I think it ‘s a pan. V: Hm, we call it pánev. M: Yes. M: So, at my place, in my village in my dialect, this thing is called But there are also different words used: N: Oh, that’s interesting. M: Yes, precisely to make pancaces. V&N: Yes. N: In Polish pancaces are ‘naleśniki.’ V: We also call it palačinky. M: But there’s a slight difference betweent it: Czechs say ‘palachinKY’ and we say ‘palachinTY’. So there’s different consonant in the end. V: Yes, understood. N: It’s more like in Hungarian. They say ‘palacsinta’ in Hungarian too. M: Yes, correct. That is an influence of Hungarian language, as we tend to live among Hungarians. V: That’s right. M: So we’ve got a lot of Hungarian vocabulary, or just influenced by Hungarian language. And here’s an instant example. But also sometimes people tend to say ‘skovoroda’, which is a Ukrainian influence, as I recall. But the most common words are: ‘fandlyk’, ‘tyganya’ and ‘palachintovka’ N: Ok. So we have 3 words for it. In your language. Right? M: Yes, at least three words. Alright. The second thing I’ve got for you guys is not actually a ‘thing’, it’s a bird. A bird! V: So it’s not an object, it’s… something, I don’t understand. N: I don’t understand it either. What category is this? M: That flying creature is called ‘potya’ out here. V: A bird! N: A bird! M: Yes. V: That’s right. M: We call it ‘potya’ We can find this bird on a farm. V: Yeah, people have it on farms. N: You have this bird on the farm. V: On the farm, yes. M: Yeap We call a ‘farm/hausehold’ as ‘gazdyvstvo’ N: Interesting. M: Yeap, like I am the owner (gazda) of this household (gazdyvstvo) N: They say that in the Polish mountains. M: That’s quite possible, I also live in the mountains. Well… So, we have lots of different birds on a farm. And one of them is the one you should guess. But this bird is not from here. V: I understand. N: There are many birds on a farm but you’re telling us about a specific one. Yes. But this bird is not from here. V: That the bird isn’t big? M: It’s big! It’s way bigger than a chicken. V: It’s bigger than a hen. N: It’s bigger than a hen. M: Yes, this bird is not from here. It’s a ‘foreighner’ in our place. V: Oh, it’s not from here, it’s not from your country. N: So it’s not a native bird. It’s brought from a different country. Right? M: Yes. V: Maybe I know. N: I think I know it too. M: So, go ahead! Have a try! V: I think it’s a turkey, what they call ‘indyk, indějka’ N: ‘Turkey’ in Polish. M: Yes, precisely. M: We call it ‘pul’ka’ ‘Pul’ka’ with that soft L, as in the word Myhal’ (my name) N: But it’s in the middle so it’s harder. (the L’ sound) M: So what, shall we proceed? V: Yes. N: We proceed. M: The next thing also has something to do with food. But it’s not a bird, it can’t run, it can’t fly. V: So it is not a bird, it is an object and again it is connected to food. N: It concerns food. But it’s not a bird and it’s not a thing. M: Okay, it’s a hard question ‘is it a thing?’. Because it’s a thing, everything is a thing. Looks like I’m just confusing you guys. So it is a thing, but we plant it. V: But we eat it. M: We plant it, and then eat it. N: First we plant it, and then we eat it. It’s a plant. V: We’ll plant it. M: Well, yes, it wasn’t nice of me to call it ‘a thing’. It is a plant. Okay, let’s get over it. We move on. So, this plant is a foundation of the modern cuisine in my region. V: So I think the plant is a basic ingredient of rural cuisine where Myhal’ is from. N: It’s an important plant in your country. It’s a part of your traditional cuisine. Right? M: Yes. Looks like Vít understands me a bit better. Because he pointed out that it is “základní”(cz) (foundation), that this plant is very important here. But it is like that since quite recently. V: But only recently it has become the main ingredient, right? M: Yes. M: Because this plant is also a ‘foreigner’ here! V: It’s not from your country either. M: Yes. V: And probably not from us either. N: Is this plant from us? N: Myhal’! Has this plant come from us? M: No, not from you, guys. It came to us at pretty much the same time as to you. V: It‘s from America. V: This could be a potato. M: Yes. N: Ah! It’s a potato. M: Yes. We also have plenty of names for this little plant. In my village we call it ‘bul’i’ That’s plural. Singular will be ‘bul’ya’, and plural: ‘bul’i’ V&N: Yeah. N: In Polish we also can say ‘bulwa’ (a bulb). It’s a form that potatoes grow in. M: Yeap, as I recall, ther’s a Ukrainian, probably dialectical, word ‘bul’ba’. It’s not a part of ‘standard’ language, but this word ‘bul’ba’ exist, and it’s quite similar. V: Yeah. M: But it’s only at my place, because elsewhere people might say ‘ripa’, and in other places ‘krumpli’ N: They use the word ‘krumpli’ in Hungarian. M: Yes, and also there’s a new word: ‘kartoshka’ V: That’s right. N: ‘Kartofel’ in Polish. M: Yeap, it’s originated from German, of course. But it came here by the USSR, from the standard Russian language. V: Yes. We say ‘brambora’ in writing, but then we have a lot of other options in dialects. People say zemáky, in Slovakia they call them zemiaky. And in the Czech Republic it was formerly called erteple because it was like Erdäpfel, ground apples. That was German. M: Yes. Interesting. N: Interesting. V: In fact, in English, it would be an earth apple. N: And in Poland, in the Greater Poland (region) they say ‘pyry’ ‘Pyry’ – Does it sound familiar to you guys? N: No. M: Absolutely not. N: If you know the etymology of ‘pyry’ please let us know in the comments! 🙂 Is it a Slavic word or not? V: And the word bulva means eyeball in standard Czech. M: Yes, this is something round, spherical. V: Yes. V: And the part of the potato plant that we eat is also called something. I can’t quite remember. V: From potatoes we eat… not the flower, not the leaf, but the bottom… N: In Polish it the ‘bulb’ V: I would rather find it, because I would like to say it as we call it, because it will be similar. N: That’s fine. We can wait. You can look it for it. M: Well, it’s quite predictable, I do see a lot of words in different Slavic languages where they use similar root for representing spherical objects, with letters B U B L in the root. For instance, there’s Slovak word ‘bublina’, which also has the same set of letters in the root, and so on… N: It’s completely different. M: So we got at least three words to name a potato out here: ‘bul’i’, ‘krumpli’, and ‘ripa’ N: “рїпа” – turnip V: In our country řepa is something else. M: What is ‘řepa’ in Czech, we call ‘burak’ (beet) N: ‘Burak’ is something else in our country. V: In our country peanut is a peanut. M: No way! Are you serious? V: Burák is what the Russians call arachis (peanut), maybe the Ukrainians too. M: Yeap, it will be ‘arakchis’ in Ukrainian. M: Yeap, it will be ‘arakchis’ in Ukrainian. M: Yeap, it will be ‘arakchis’ in Ukrainian. M: So waht, shall we proceed? There’s the last, fourth word for you guys. M: So this is basically a thing. V: And it‘s a thing, an item. M: It’s not flying, it’s not running. It stands. So, this is the object that we use pretty much every day. But people in big cities are using it more often, that people in villages. V: Yeah, people in big cities use it more than people in villages. N: People in big cities use this item more often than people in villages. M: This object is build out of wood or beton. V: It‘s made of wood or concrete. N: It‘s made of wood or concrete. M: Yes, correct. Without it, it would be difficult for you guys to get to a loft. N: It would be hard to get on the roof. Or to get upstairs. V: Oh, Norbert helped me when he said dach, it helped me, I didn’t understand it from Myhal’. N: It’s more like I figured it put from the context.I didn’t know that word. How do you say ‘roof’ in Rusyn? M: How we say it? M: Well, for the ‘dach’ (a roof) we say ‘stricha’. And below the foor we’ve got the loft (pyd) V: Aaa, the attic! M: Yes, correct. V: The attic, clearly! N: ‘To the attic’ in Polish. The thing under the roof is called ‘strych’ V: I see. And we have a roof and the attic is under it. N: I think I know what it is. M: Well then, have a try! N: Are you talking about ‘stairs’? M: Yes. N: The stairs? It could be a ladder. But ladders are not made of concrete. M: Bingo! N: Only stairs can be made of concrete or wood. V: We call that schody too. N: You also call that schody in Czech. M: In Ukrainian it is also ‘schody’, but we say ‘garadychi’ (stairs) N: Because it has ‘degrees/steps’, right? M: Well, I was trying to find the ethymology of this precise word, and I’ve found absolutely nothing similar in Hungarian, Romanian, neither of the other Slavic languages. Still have no idea where it’s originated from, but we use it, ‘garadychi’ V: And how do you say ladder in Polish and Rusyn? It is wooden or metallic and you use it to climb to the attic? M: If I’m right there’s a Czech slang word ‘shtafle'(a ladder) V: Also stepladder. I see. M: Yes, and we call it ‘lytra’ N: In Polish ‘drabina’ V: Because we have a ladder, it is one piece and stepladders are two pieces. M: hat’s peculiar, I’ve never thought of this. We do no difference between it, we call the ladder ‘lytra’ no matter if it’s a sinlge piece or it’s stepladder. It has Hungarian roots, it is “létra” originally. N: Yes. That’s how it is in Hungarian – “létra” V: And you call a city ‘város’? M: Well, yes, originally we said ‘varosh’ (a city). Because in the old times… V: And that’s Hungarian too, isn’t it? M: Yes, it’s just back then Rusyns used to live in the villages, not in big cities. Big cities were inhabited by Hungarians mostly. In the USSR times some new words arised, such as ‘gorod’ (a city) V: Yes. M: Yes, in Russian it will be ‘gorod’, but we have a tendency to say it softer, as ‘horod’ Yes, nowadays people tend to say ‘No, ydu v horod’ (well, I’m going to the city), but some time ago they’d say ‘No, ydu v varosh’ V: And the Ukrainians say “misto”? M: Yes. V: And the Poles too? N: ‘Miasto’ (city) V: And we say ‘město’ N: Look at you! To me, it’s incredible how close Rusyn is to Polish and Czech. What do you think? Were you able to guess all 4 words? Let us know in the comments. If you like this kind of stuff subscribe to my channel. More videos are already in the making. And if you’re learning Polish contact me through the Ecolinguist website if you need speaking practice. See you in the next video! Cześć!