American Sign Language (ASL) Linguistics (Part 03)
August 25, 2019
And now, our new student M-O-D-E-L, model. What’s her name? Tell them your name. STUDENT: B-R-A-N-D-I Did you catch that? Who is she? You missed it? Tell them again. STUDENT: B-R-A-N-D-I She’s B-R-A-N-D…Y? Nope. Fold in the thumb. “I” Right. Good. Move the image in, will you? For the recording. It’s too far away. Bring in the edges. Hello? Camera person? Bring it in. Oh, wonderful! Scoot over here a bit. Do I stink? Do you stink? Good. Fine? Thank you for coming. STUDENT: It’s OK. Thank you. I’m Dr. Bill Vicars. This is my sign name. Here I am. Today, we’re going to discuss L-I-N-G-U-I-S-T-I-C-S. What’s the sign for L-I-N-G—? STUDENT: Linguistics. Linguistics. Linguistics. Wow, she’s skilled! Linguistics. Good. That word, “R-E-G-A-I-N,” “AGAIN + RECEIVE”? AGAIN + RECEIVE! My point… My point is that the English word “regain” …that “R-E” part… what is it called? M-O-R-P-H-E-M-E Do you know a sign for that? Any of you know a sign for M-O-R-P-H-E-M-E? Morpheme. Morpheme. In here, we use this sign for “morpheme.” Some hearing people who study linguistics sign “morpheme” with the M-handshape. That’s what they do. Whatever. In here, we sign it like this. M-O-R-P-H-E-M-E So, moving down to the next line. “R” Does that have meaning? “R”? STUDENT: Yes. It has meaning? So if I write…. Suppose I… What does that mean? STUDENT: It has no meaning. Right?
STUDENT: No, no, no… STUDENT: I thought you were talking about morphemes. Right. If I grab just “R” from this word, look here! An R! That R means nothing. STUDENT: Right. The “R” is not a morpheme. But if I take the “R” and add an “E” to it… “Re-” What does “re-” mean? STUDENT: Again. Right! Again. It has meaning. If I take the “E” by itself… Look! An “E”! What does it mean? STUDENT: Nothing. Nothing. Right. What do we call that? STUDENT: P-H-O-N-E-M-E Hurray! Good! P-H-O-N-E-M-E A little piece. OK. If a small part of a word itself has meaning, what is it called? STUDENT: I don’t know. Help her out. Morpheme. M-O-R-P-H-E-M-E STUDENT: Oh, morpheme. Right. Morpheme. OK. Morpheme. Suppose you remove a small part of a word, and that small part has no meaning, what is it called? STUDENT: P-H-O-N-E-M-E Right. P-H-O-N-E-M-E We’ll sign it like this: “phoneme” The smallest parts of a language, what are they called? What did that person say? STUDENT: Again? STUDENT: P-H-O-N-E-M-E Do you agree? STUDENT: I’m not sure. You’re not sure? Maybe? STUDENT: If they’re right, then yes. If they’re right, then you agree? STUDENT: Yup! Wow, she’s a smart girl! STUDENT: Yay! You’re right! P-H-O-N-E-M-E “Phoneme” means the smallest parts of a language. They’re called “phonemes.” Do these tiny parts have meaning? STUDENT: No. No, they don’t. If they had a meaning, we would call it something else. What do we call the building B-L-O-C-K-S of a word or sign? What did she say? STUDENT: P-H-O-N-E-M-E Do you agree? If she’s right? STUDENT: Yes! Ready? STUDENT: Yay! These features, these tiny little parts, these are phonemes. OK. Now, the different parts of a sign… a part here, and a part here. They match up with each other. What do we call that? “Phonological Processes.” OK. Are those the same or different? STUDENT: Different. Different. Yeah. Different. They’re not the same. They have contrast. Meaning what? C-O-N-T-R-A-S-T Contrast. You told me they’re different. STUDENT: Yes. They’re truly different. Do they mean anything? STUDENT: No. They mean nothing. Maybe if I turn it this way… it looks a bit like… a C-handshape doing this? You know? Nah. STUDENT: Maybe an “R”? R? Oh! An “R”! Maybe. If… STUDENT: It looks like art. Art if I were drunk. A zag here… an R… But right now it doesn’t mean anything. STUDENT: Right. They are phonological. They tend to be P-H-O-N-O-L-O-G-I-C-A-L They have parts. Little parts. So, the parts… such as this one here… That’s a small part. It looks different from this one here. Different. They look different. That part from that one. But they still mean nothing. No independent meaning. You do it. What does that mean? STUDENT: Nothing. Nothing. No meaning. Those movements are actually P-H-O-N-E-M-E-S. They are certainly different. This movement is different from this one. STUDENT: Sure. But with no context… no content… C-O-N-T-E-X-T …no surroundings… …no expanding of the idea… it means nothing. These movements are what? P-H-O-N-E-M-E-S Like it says there. You read it! Yay! That! OK. Good, there ya go! They’re different? STUDENT: Right. Palm orientation is a phoneme. What does this mean? STUDENT: Nothing. It means nothing. Are they different? STUDENT: Yeah. Good! Like you said, they’re different. So what does it mean, different? STUDENT: Nothing! Hold on, hold on… The sign itself–“different”–what does it mean? STUDENT: C-O-N… STUDENT: D-I-F-F-E-R-E-N-T BILL: What does it mean? C-O-N…? STUDENT: C-O-N-T-R-A-S-T Right! It means that you can see two things and see their differences. It means they have C-O-N-T-R-A-S-T. They are C-O-N-T-R-A-S-T-I-V-E These two things have contrast, they’re different. When contrast is included, the difference between the two is made clear. Does it mean anything? STUDENT: Not… with nothing else, no. It means nothing, this gesture. When the hand is here or here, it doesn’t matter. She meant “out of context.” Or without the content. What does this sign mean–do you know this sign? M-E-A-T. Right. We sometimes sign “meat” for “C-O-N-T-E-N-T.” Or C-O-N-T-E-X-T. Set that aside for now. We can also add this sign for “context.” Context. C-O-N-T-E-X-T For in here, we’ll sign it like this. Or like this. What does this sign mean? STUDENT: S-E-N-T-E-N-C-E Right. Out there, this sign means “S-E-N-T-E-N-C-E.” If we see a sentence here… and I place a word in the middle of it… now that word has C-O-N-T-E-X-T. STUDENT: Right. Context (sentence) or context. So, if I just have my hand here or here, there is no context. No context. It means nothing. Not yet. We agree, yeah? Location itself is a phoneme. It is a small U-N-I-T of language without meaning. Handshape, location, movement, palm orientation, what you do with your face, and holds… What are they really? P-H-O-N-E-M-E-S. Yay! You guys are getting smart now! OK. Phonemes have contrast, but they don’t have what? STUDENT: Meaning. Meaning. Phonology is the study of what? P-H-O-N-E-M-E-S? But what are phonemes? A part of language. A big part? Small part. How small? Smallest! Does it have meaning? No? No meaning? What do phonemes have? Contrast! C-O-N-T-R-A-S-T Therefore, we can propose that phonology is the study of the smallest units of language. The smallest C-O-N-T-R-A-S-T-I-V-E units of language. If we add… attach… connect… meaning… then that phoneme… is now called a “morpheme.” “Morpheme” itself means a phoneme with meaning. So if I sign this (waving hand up and down) it doesn’t mean anything. But if I do this: “Hey! Hey!” It means “H-E-Y. Look at me.” Right? So this sign “Hey” becomes what? A morpheme. Recently, when I signed this (hand wave up and down), it didn’t mean anything. But I tweaked it just a little and that added meaning. Now, with that change, it’s a morpheme. Do you know the sign for “M-A-G-I-C”? STUDENT: M-A… M-A-G-I-C STUDENT: Magic? Magic! So, with a little magic, a phoneme can become a morpheme. For instance, the sign “culture”… if we just have the C-handshape here, it doesn’t have meaning. A person might say, “It does mean something! It means ‘drink’.” No, no. It means -nothing-. It needs to have context. If I show you this paper with a C-shape drawn on it… you might say, “Oh! A, B, C! That’s a C!” What, then, if I turn it this way? It’s not a C. Understand? You don’t know what this is. This is a phoneme. If I have… What’s that? STUDENT: Cat. Oh, a cat. Now it has meaning. It is now the first part of the word “cat.” Now that C-shape means the letter… L-E-T-T-E-R …C in the English language. Got that? Some will say, “No… C-A-T? That C is a phoneme.” Maybe we can get what they’re saying. If I pluck the C out of its context… Hey, suppose your grade report… –hold on, let me show you. Now, that C has meaning. It’s now a morpheme. It changed from a phoneme to a morpheme. Sad tears. A C grade means you should study more. Bring it up to a B or A. Some included parts of signs do not create meaning. If I’m signing away, and you say, “What’s that mean?” “It doesn’t mean anything.” What part? Some parts of signing have no meaning. For example: What does that mean? STUDENT: I don’t know. She doesn’t know. Why doesn’t she know? Because it has no meaning! STUDENT: Nothing! This “sign” means nothing. So why do I sign it, then? Hold on. Take a breath. Wait for it. It means… Nothing. It just shows up. Is left behind. Thinking thinking thinking… How would you sign that? Father… Study. Right. Father study. When I sign “Father”… …it has meaning. The sign means “father.” My dad. Thank you for having me. Father. And the sign “study” has meaning. But this gesture? It doesn’t have meaning. It’s a movement that appears between the two signs. That’s it. Nothing more than a movement. It shows up between any two signs. It’s a phonological process… …it has no meaning… but it’s part of signing even though it has no meaning. It’s called “phonological.” Is it called M-O-R-P-H-O-L-O-G-I-C-A-L? STUDENT: No. Why not? STUDENT: Because it doesn’t have meaning. Yay! Good! You’re right. So that process where something appears between any two signs and has no meaning? We call that a Phonological Process. If the movement itself had meaning, we’d call it a morphological process. But that movement doesn’t have meaning, so it’s a phonological process. So that movement that pops up, what do we call it? Hey, we’ll see if any of them have read the book. STUDENT: They’re checking? I’ve studied research about how many students fully read their books. Bound? Nope. Good guess, though. B-O-U-N-D M-O-R-P-H-E-M-E No, sorry. Good try! So what we call that in-between movement… (in the case of “father” and “study,” it’s this) …that movement between the signs, that process, is called what? I will help you guys. I’ll give you… T-O-O-L I’ll give you a L-A-B-E-L, a label, for that. Ready? It’s called “Movement (Added) Epenthesis.” Movement Epenthesis. Movement Epenthesis (E-P-E-N-T-H-E-S-I-S) Spell it for me. *giggle* STUDENT: Spell it? Um… STUDENT: E… P… I don’t know. That’s fine. Have the class help you. Look over there. STUDENT: E-P… E-P-A-N… STUDENT: Again? STUDENT: E-P-A…E? N… STUDENT: …T-H-E-S-I-S Do you guys agree? E…P… E… N… …T …H …E …S …I …S I think you’re right. Good job. Ready? Sign it with me. E-P-E-N-T-H-E-S-I-S Let me see. STUDENT: E-P-A-N… No no. E… …P-E-N- STUDENT: Ah, “e” STUDENT: …E-P-E-N-S-I-T-S-I-S? …T-H-E-S-I-S STUDENT: I badly spelled the whole word! It’s ok. They were bad, too. You all are bad spellers. I’ll help you. We’ll separate it into parts. Ready? First part: E-P-E-N STUDENT: E-P-E-N? Yup. E-P-E-N. E + “pen” STUDENT: E-P-E-N. Right. Set that part aside. Now, if you advance to grad school, for class you might study and write a what? T-H-E-S-I-S STUDENT: T-H-E…S-I-S STUDENT: E-P-E-N-T-H-E-S-I-S. Yay! So, what does Movement Epenthesis mean? STUDENT: It’s a movement that has no meaning, but… STUDENT: …it is added because of signs. STUDENT: It’s a movement between two signs. Yes, it is between two signs. So here’s a sign and here’s a sign. To get from one to the other, there needs to be movement between them. It’s added. Yup. Thumbs up. I accept it. You passed. Idea. Good idea. Good. Good. Idea. Good. Good idea. Close. Ready? Good idea! Good idea. You all should tip your ASL teacher. That’s a good idea. You should bring pizza to class. Good idea. STUDENT: Yes. Good idea. They look different. Good. Idea. Good idea. They look different. STUDENT: Yes. They look like they have C-O-N-T-R-A-S-T. STUDENT: Contrast/different. What is different about them? STUDENT: Good… Good idea… STUDENT: Good idea… Let me suggest this to you all: Good. It feels like a hold. H-O-L-D. “Ah! Good!” Good! My hand is staying there. I’m holding it. “I have an idea.” The sign “idea” is also being held. A brief hold, but a hold. “Good” has a long hold. It’s staying. “GOOD!” “Good idea!” The holds for both are eliminated. The holds become very reduced. So if I eliminate the hold… …does that have meaning? STUDENT: No. Nope. It still means “good.” It still means “idea.” It means “that idea itself is good.” It doesn’t mean anything. What kind of process do we call that? STUDENT: Movement Epenthesis? Well, it has Movement Epenthesis. STUDENT: Phonological Process. Yes! Jumping up and down with joy! What did she say? What did she say? Phonological Process. So, that process of eliminating the holds is a Phonological Process. It doesn’t create a new meaning. It just happens. If I’m signing away, and someone asks: “What does it mean when you drop that hold?” Response: “It doesn’t mean anything. It just happened.” Reducing the hold, shortening the hold, between two signs is not a morphological process. It’s not. You were right. We’ll call that shortening of a hold a phonological process, OK? We call it “Hold Reduction.” Hmm? One sec… OK. Again. “…called hold D-E-L-E-T-I-O-N?” Ah, interesting what she asked me. Did you understand her? STUDENT: No. BILL: Again. “…means that it is a hold deletion” STUDENT: D-E-L… E-D-E-L… D-E-L-E…T… N-Y … D-E-T-D-N-Y D-E-L-T-E-N-D-Y-L-A? Do you understand it? Deletion? STUDENT: Heck no! I’ll help you. STUDENT: Thank you. I’ll help. Ready? She’s sweating, she’s working. Take a breath. Calm down. OK. She asked me if hold R-E-D-U-C-T-I-O-N –“reduction” is signed like this or this– is that the same as H-O-L-D D-E-L-E-T-I-O-N? I think I spelled that right. D-E-L-E-T-I-O-N. To throw something away. So, to reduce something or getting rid of something, is it the same thing? My answer: They’re different. But, your book that you’re using, –the 4th E-D-I-T-I-O-N– Understand? Her book is the 4th edition. And here’s the 5th edition! So if you open them up side-by-side and compare them: the 4th says “H-O-L-D D-E-L-E-T-I-O-N.” But the 5th edition uses “H-O-L-D reduction.” R-E-D-U-C-T-I-O-N Hmm. Aha! The author gave it some thought and changed his/her mind. The author decided to drop that phrase, “hold deletion,” and exchanged it for “hold reduction.” The reason why? Because we don’t fully throw out the hold. We don’t take away the hold. We reduce, or shorten, the hold. So it’s a “new” word used by the author. It changed from the 4th edition to the 5th. Good question! It’s funny, when I was planning the lesson, I noticed my PowerPoint slides used “deletion.” I went and found my old book, cracked it open, and realized, “Aha! It’s different now.” So there ya go. New topic! STUDENT: Deaf. You sign “Deaf” from chin to ear, but that person signs ear to chin. STUDENT: Same thing. They’re the same? STUDENT: Yeah. They both mean “Deaf.” They don’t have different meanings? STUDENT: Correct. Oh! The meanings aren’t different. What kind of process is that, that we’ve discussed? Phonological. So, “Deaf” signed this way, or this way, the direction can be reversed. Flipped. The movement can be switched. That switching of movement is what kind of process? It’s a Phonological Process. Yup, this way or this way. Is it right or wrong? They’re both right. Do you understand “both”? Understand what it means? STUDENT: B-O-T-H Good. B-O-T-H. “Both.” Both are right. Do both have the same meaning? Yes. STUDENT: Phonological Process. Right. Yay! It’s not a morphological process. The sign for “Deaf,” the first part and the last part can be swapped. S-E-G-M-E-N-T The sign for S-E-G-M-E-N-T is this: segment (part). Segment. Or “segment.” So the first segment and the last segment. Or, the first segment and the last segment. And the places can be switched. Show me the first segment of the sign “Deaf.” STUDENT: [finger near ear] Finger to ear! Or as you signed it before, finger to chin! Or finger to chin and starting to move, maybe? So really there are 3 segments: (1) near chin, (2) movement away from chin, (3) moving closer to ear, (4) at the ear Whatever. Three. One, two, and three. Movement 1 and 3 can switch places. One, two, and three. That can occur. Switching. That phonological process is called…? STUDENT: M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S Good. What’s it called? STUDENT: M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S What does it mean? STUDENT: I can only remember one thing… BILL: … at a time. That’s fine. Ask them. Ask them to help you with what it means. STUDENT: What does it mean? “Can change first segment and last segment…” STUDENT: Right. STUDENT: The sections can be swapped. Do you agree? STUDENT: Yes. She seems like a smart person to ask. I’ll ask you guys for other signs– give me a list–whose segments can be switched. “Happy”? Can you sign “happy” like this? STUDENT: No. Nope. “Happy” doesn’t qualify. Q-U-A-L-I-F-Y. Signed like this. It doesn’t qualify. “Sign” signed toward or away from the body? That’s an interesting idea. But not like this. That aside. Come on, what do you think? “Mom”? Nope. “Parents”? Yes, I accept that. “Parents.” You can sign it this way or this way. Maybe it means that I love my mom more if I sign “parent” (mother/father). That means I love my dad a little less, right? No, no. But success for you! You’re right. “Parents” is one. What’s that process called? M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S “Flower”? Yay, good! “Flower.” You can sign it this way, or this way. “Restaurant.” “Cafe.” “Twin”? T-W-I-N Can sign it this way or this way. Fine, fine. I’ll give you a list. Congress. It’s not right or wrong. “Congress” this way is OK, and “Congress” this way is OK, too. Flower. Restaurant. Do you know the sign for that? Honeymoon. Navy. Use this handshape. Ah, you learned a new sign! Cool. Oh, you… You worked old… Oh! She worked at Old Navy. She thought, “Finally! I know the sign for ‘Navy’!” Good. “Navy.” Do you know why “Navy” is signed like this? STUDENT: I don’t know, no. If you look, their uniforms have buttons that go down and then close on the sides. It’s to help protect from the wind when on a ship. Coat. “Twins.” Yes, can sign with either handshape. Bachelor. Or another way to sign it, like this. Here’s a third way. Whatever. You can just sign “bachelor.” Parents. Head. Right. You can sign it either direction. I myself tend to sign it from the bottom to top. Top to bottom? Yeah. Happy. “Happy”? Right, good. Body. You can’t sign “body” this way. It’s funny. Don’t do it. “Body.” Right. “King.” One movement diagonal. Yes, good. “King” this direction? Uh, no. “KING!” Weird! Christ. Indian. It’s an old sign. Native. But yeah, “Indian.” You can’t sign it this way. You can’t. Blouse. Blouse. You can sign SHIRT that’s fine, thumbs up. But another sign is “blouse.” But not signed this way. “Blouse” like this is correct. Thanksgiving. Another way to sign it: “Thanksgiving.” You can’t sign it this direction. Don’t do that. “Thanksgiving.” Downward. And with this version of “Thanksgiving,” you can’t sign it toward your face. Don’t do it. It’s weird. Children. Good. But not like this. Yes, you can sign it with one hand. But not this direction. Weird. Maybe you have weird children. STUDENT: Maybe! Maybe. Thing. “Thing.” Yes, good. But this way? Nope. New topic. Sometimes a part of a sign takes on the characteristics of another segment near it. “Signing, signing, signing, I know.” Observe the handshape. “Signing, signing, signing, I know.” Another person sees this. Is it wrong? Nah. You can’t call it wrong. “You signed it wrong!” If you tell a person, “You signed it wrong.” They might respond, “What are you talking about? You weirdo. Stop Bothering me.” [When a person signs “I KNOW” using the bent hand shape for “I”] the signer does it unconsciously and never notices that they are doing a bent hand version of “I.” They overlook it and just keep signing. as they’re signing. So, this “I” here… …and “know”… If you sign it with just the index finger, you’ll have to change the entire handshape by the time you move it to your brow. That handshape for “I” looks like the handshape for “know.” Take on. T-A-K-E O-N Got it? Sign it. Take on. (based on sign for “adopt”) You? Good. Cool, yeah. EMBODY-[take on the characteristics of / personification] That process is called what? A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N We can sign it this way. Good sign, “EMBODY,” I like that. Does your other teacher sign “assimilate” like this? You’re brilliant. “Assimilation.” I really like it! I’m going to [EMBODY] your sign for “assimilation.” Yeah! “Assimilation” means when a segment adopts or “assimilates” the characteristics of another sign just before or after it. The assimilation can go in either direction. What’s the old sign for… H-O-R-S-E. Horse? I’ll teach you all the old sign! I’m old. I’ll show you the old one: “Horse.” The old sign uses both hands: “Horse.” D-O-N-K-E-Y. Donkey. I suggest “donkey” with one hand. D-O-N-K-E-Y Horse. H-O-R-S-E What do you think for “R-A-B-B-I-T”? Rabbit. “Rabbit.” Whatever. Let’s set that aside for now. So here’s the old sign for “horse.” H-O-R-S-E Old sign? “Cow.” Old sign? “Cat.” “Deer.” Sometimes if both hands are used in signing, for example “deer,” the hands are doing the same thing. What am I using this hand for? Might as well not use it. Deer. Cow. Horse. Cat. Do I need to use two hand? I could have one free to hold a sandwich and sign “cat.” What do we call that? They’re thinking! STUDENT: Assimilation? Nope. Without guessing. STUDENT: Oh! It’s a new term. Yes, it’s a new term. Right. It’s not assimilation. It’s removing use of the second hand. What is that called? “S… I… M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N” No, that’s from before, when we talked about the handshape of “I” and “know.” That is assimilation. A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N. Assimilation. Now we’re on a new topic. We call it “Weak Hand Deletion.” Weak Hand Deletion. Deletion. Take away. D-E-L-E-T-I-O-N. Cancellation. Dropping. Weak hand dropping. OK. It’s work! STUDENT: I know! Our heads are filling until they explode. We’re tough. We’re ready. You can surrender and leave. Do you give up? STUDENT: Nope. I have a “no.” She’s stubborn. S-T-U-B-B-O-R-N STUDENT: It’s true. That’s good. It’ll help you maybe pass this class. STUDENT: Yay! Review time. We’ll review all the points we’ve covered. Review. Or signed like this: “Review.” “Review” or “review.” That person learned a new sign. “Ooooh, ‘review.'” STUDENT: I did, too! Cool! Adding a movement between segments is called…? Ha! That person is digging through their notes. STUDENT: Oh! E-P-E-N-T-H-E-S-I-S Yay! Good! Movement epenthesis. She’s right. STUDENT: (to person off-camera) Thank you! The hold between two signs. We call that hold what? STUDENT: Hold Reduction. What was that? Fingerspell it. STUDENT: D-E… D-R… …R-E-C-D… …U-C-T-I-O-N Oh! R-E-D-U-C-T-I-O-N Hold R-E-D-U-C-T-I-O-N Hold Reduction. I accept that. I agree. Yay! You’ve passed two now. If you all work together, you can pass my test. Nah, you need to work separately. Maybe you should study a little bit. Segments that can change places… STUDENT: M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S Hey, what’d she say? Aww, you missed it. Will you tell her again? M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S You missed it? You pass your turn? What’d she say? “M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S.” Did they spell it right? STUDENT: Spell it again. Yes. Good. You pass. I agree. M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S. Metathesis. Nah, we’ll sign it like this. “Metathesis.” I like that better. Or this. STUDENT: Assimilation. A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N. Yay! Good. She didn’t need any of you guys. “A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N …? All right.” Do you agree with her? A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N STUDENT: Weak Hand…… Deletion. Spell that, “deletion.” STUDENT: D-E-L-E-T-I-O-N Ah, she said “D-E-L-E-T-I-O-N.” Weak Hand Deletion. Or Weak Hand Deletion signed like this. Whatever. They agree. You’re sizzling on those points! Wow. We have a few minutes left. Your book has a few examples I’ll give you. If I sign… …what if I sign this: What is that? What does it mean? What do we call that process? STUDENT: That is… Movement E-P-E-N-T-H-E-S-I-S? Do you agree? STUDENT: Yes? You agree. Fine. They agree with you. I agree with you, too. If I sign… Member. M-E-M-B-E-R Member. What’s that process called? STUDENT: Do you guys know that? STUDENT: M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S Let me see it again. STUDENT: M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S I agree with you. Success! Wow. OK. Fine. If I sign… 18 years old How old are you? How old are you? You? Ah! 18. She’s 18 years old. What’s that process called? STUDENT: A phonological process? Yes. Specifically, which one? What’s the name of that specific phonological process? STUDENT: Again? STUDENT: A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N Let me see. STUDENT: A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-M-N STUDENT: A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N Yay! Good. Her fingers are rusty. She needed to oil them. STUDENT: Yes. “Ah, that’s better.” Good job. If I sign… “Die.” But I just sign it like this. STUDENT: Weak Hand Deletion. OK, OK. Good. I accept that. What’s the other recent principle that I missed? The last couple. We talked about Movement E-P-E-N-T-H-E-S-I-S. Ah! OK. “Signing, signing, see you later! Good night.” What’s that principle that we just used? Nope, stop. Not you. Any of you others. “Good night! See you later. Good night!” “See you later. Good night!” “See you… later … Good … night…” There. What’d they say? STUDENT: Hold Reduction. Spell it. STUDENT: H-O-L-D Hold. STUDENT: R-E-D-U-C-T-I-O-N Do you guys agree? Yay, good job! Now, the last two minutes of class. I want you guys to give me, give the two of us, examples. Give me examples of some of what you know. Flower. What about it? STUDENT: E-P-E-N-T-H… M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S? “M.” M-E-T-A-T-H-E-S-I-S. I agree. Meta–yes. More? Raise your hand What principles have we discussed? Any of them. Cow. STUDENT: Weak Hand Deletion. Good. And another principle? How about… yes, “die.” Yup. That’s Weak Hand Deletion. So, do you have any more examples of Hold Reduction? 9:00 I can see that. And it’s A-S-S-I-M-I-L-A-T-I-O-N. Or maybe more of Numerical– N-U-M-E-R-I-C-A-L I-N-C-O-R-P-O-R-A-T-I-O-N. Need to see it again? STUDENT: Again. N-U-M-E-R-I-C-A-L I-N-C-O-R-P-O-R-A-T-I-O-N. Think of it as a number being included in the sign. But it’s strongly included. Strongly assimilated. Like this gesture. Thank you, thank you. You’re excused. Thanks to Brandi for helping me today. You’re fine. Go on. We’re done. See you all Wednesday at 1:00. Over there.